PANNA: Agent Orange and Dioxin in Vietnam: New Findings
Pesticide Action Network Updates Service (PANUPS)
December 4, 1998
A report released by a Canadian consulting firm calls for urgent international attention to problems created by U.S. spraying of Agent Orange during the Vietnam War. The study found that the spraying has resulted in contamination of the country's food chain which in turn has led to serious environmental and health problems.
The firm, Hatfield Consultants Ltd., has spent the past five years studying the effects of the herbicides sprayed in Vietnam from 1962 to 1971. During that period, the U.S. military carried out over 6,500 missions as part of Operation Ranch Hand, spraying approximately 72 million liters of herbicides on more than 1.5 million hectares (about 10% of South Vietnam). About one third of the area was sprayed more than once, and 52,000 hectares were sprayed more than four times. According to official U.S. reports, Operation Ranch Hand destroyed 14% of South Vietnam's forests, including 50% of the mangrove forests.
Agent Orange accounted for approximately 60% of the herbicides used by the military to destroy forests and crops during this time. This chemical was a mixture of the herbicides 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T and also contained dioxin generated during formulation of 2,4,5-T. While the two herbicides break down in the environment rather quickly, dioxin is a highly persistent compound that remains in the environment for decades and can cause cancer, birth defects and other health and developmental problems.
The Hatfield study, one of the most comprehensive conducted on Agent Orange to date, found high levels of dioxin in the blood of Vietnamese born after the war, indicating that contaminants are being transferred through the food chain. High levels of dioxin were also found in fish and animal tissue. The study did not determine the number of people affected, and the authors stated that epidemiological studies are needed to establish a direct link between Agent Orange and the high rate of birth deformities found among the populations studied.
The report recommended setting up a public health plan to ensure that people do not eat contaminated food; comprehensive studies to investigate the link between Agent Orange and health problems; international assistance to develop and implement a reforestation program; and a campaign to decontaminate affected lands.
Since the war, Vietnam has not asked for compensation, but according to Hatfield needs help from the international community to reclaim denuded forest lands. Large areas of land that were once jungle are now covered with scrub and wild grasses and could take centuries to recover without human intervention. Vietnam also needs assistance to care for the 70,000 people who the government says have medical or physical problems caused by their exposure or their parents' exposure to Agent Orange.
Effects of Agent Orange on U.S. veterans who were in Vietnam has also been studied. However, according to a six-month investigation by The San Diego Union-Tribune, the U.S. military's US$200 million study is so flawed that it might be useless. After interviewing military scientists and reviewing meeting transcripts, government reports and internal memos, the newspaper uncovered a series of flaws in the Air Force study which began in 1979 and ends in 2006.
Problems with the study include:
-- Two reports revealing serious birth defects among children of veterans exposed to Agent Orange were withheld for years;
-- A report stating concerns about cancer and birth defects was altered making the risks appear less serious;
-- The government ignored a National Academy of Sciences recommendation that the study be conducted by scientists outside the military;
-- High ranking Air Force officers interfered with the study's data analysis undermining its scientific integrity.
The San Diego Union-Tribune quoted one of the scientists, who designed the study but was later removed from the investigation, as saying it was a medical crime. He also stated that the study was manipulated to downplay the health problems of Vietnam veterans. The newspaper reports that the study's findings to date have been a key factor in denying compensation to Vietnam veterans who have illnesses they claim are related to Agent Orange exposure.
Sources: "Vietnam Study Finds Dioxin in Food Chain," Los Angeles Times, October 31, 1998. "How the Military Misled Vietnam Veterans and Their Families About the Health Risks of Agent Orange," The San Diego Union-Tribune, November 1, 1998. Hatfield Consultants Ltd., www.hatfieldgroup.com.