Malaria is one of the major global health problems and has a devastating impact on many populations, particularly in Africa. The main tools and strategies currently employed to control malaria are medicines for its prevention and treatment, and chemicals to control the mosquito vectors. Chemical strategies focus on insecticide treated nets and indoor residual spraying. But these chemical applications pose established and suspected risks for human health and the environment. Medical and chemical approaches can become ineffective through development of resistance – by mosquito vectors to chemicals and by parasites to pharmaceuticals. The widely-banned pesticide DDT is still used in many countries to control the vectors of malaria, even though the legally binding Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) calls for its global elimination.