Dow Corporate Profile

August 2010

The largest chemical company in the U.S. and second largest worldwide, Dow Chemical is a leading producer of pesticides, plastics, hydrocarbons and other chemicals.[1] Its production processes and practices have poisoned the environment as well as consumers and workers, sometimes with dire consequences for entire communities. The company is responsible for hazardous pesticides (such as 2,4-D, Dursban, Telone and DBCP), byproducts such as dioxin, ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), and Agent Orange and napalm used during the Vietnam War. In 1999, Dow acquired Union Carbide, whose pesticide plant in Bhopal, India, released methyl isocyanate and other chemicals in 1984, causing one of the worst industrial disasters in history. Recently Dow has positioned itself as one five corporations dominating the genetically engineered seed market. Dow also exerts considerable political and social influence.

On this page:

Dow at a Glance

Headquarters Midland, Michigan, USA

Key subsidiaries Cargill Dow LLC, Dow AgroSciences LLC, Dow AgroSciences India Pvt. Ltd.,  Dow Automotive, Dow Reichhold Specialty Latex LLC, Union Carbide Corporation, Rohm & Haas, Angus Chemical Company [2]

Product sectors In 2009: Electronic & Specialty Materials (9.9%), Coatings and Infrastructure (10.26%), Pharmaceutical and Agricultural Products (9.7%), Performance Systems (12.5%), Performance Products (19.5%), Hydrocarbons & Energy (9%), Basic Chemicals (5.3%), Basic Plastics (21.28%), Corporate (2.3%) [3]

Employees About 52,195 employees worldwide [1]

Revenues Net revenue of $44.9 billion in 2009. [3]

Net income At the end of 2009, Dow's net income was about $650 million. This was down from almost $3 billion at the end of 2007. [4]

Executive compensation Dow Chairman and CEO Andrew Liveris received compensation and awards of $15,420,687 in 2009, including a $1.65 million base salary. The rest was in the form of  performance awards and long-term incentives. His compensation in 2008 was $12,650,266, with the same base salary. With base salaries and incentives, Dow's Heinz Haller (Executive Vice President of Performance Systems, Asia Pacific) receives $5.7 million, Charles Kalil (Executive Vice President, Law and Government Affairs, General Counsel and Corporate Secretary) $5.46 million, William Banholzer (Executive Vice President and Chief Technology Officer$5.46 million, Geoffery Merszei (Executive Vice President) $3.33 million and William Weideman (Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer) $1.84 million. [5]

Interlocking directorates Ten of fourteen Dow Directors sit on Boards for other top U.S. corporations [6]

Type of corporation Public (traded on the New York Stock Exchange)


Pesticides and Agricultural Biotechnology

Dow Chemical describes itself as “Providing pest management and biotechnology products that improve the quality and quantity of the earth's food supply and contribute to the safety, health and quality of life of the world's growing population.”The chemical giant’s agricultural products, however, tell a different story.

Pesticides

Dow is responsible for a wide range of harmful pesticide products and ingredients, including:

2,4-D Dioxin-contaminated herbicide that was one of two active ingredients in Agent Orange and Agent White (chemical weapons widely used by the U.S. during the Vietnam war). [7]

2,4,5-T Second active ingredient of Agent Orange. [7] In 1977, a lawsuit and subsequent scientific studies linked 2,4,5-T crop spraying to miscarriages in Oregon.[8] Dow produced 2,4,5-T in New Zealand until 1987, years after it was banned by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [9] 2,4,5-T, a dioxin contaminated chemical, is a known carcinogen and PAN Bad Actor chemical.[10]

Chlorpyrifos (Dursban and Lorsban) A potent insecticide affecting the nervous system and brain, Chlorpyrifos has been the cause of thousands of poisonings. EPA suspected chlorpyrifos was the culprit in 17,771 incidents reported to the U.S. Poison Control Center in a 3-yr period. [11] In 2000, EPA banned household uses of chlorpyrifos , but not before Dow had already sold hundreds of millions dollars worth of the chemical every single year, making it one of the most commonly used insecticides in the United States. [11] Chlorpyrifos is a cholinesterase inhibitor, suspected endocrine disruptor and PAN Bad Actor pesticide. [12]

Clopyralid A widely used and highly persistent herbicide used on lawns and wheat crops, Clopyralid hasbeen found at harmful levels in compost in California, Pennsylvania and New Zealand.[13] In response to growing pressure from composters and organic farmers, Dow withdrew clopyralid for use on residential lawns in the U.S. in 2002, although this use may persist.[14] Clopyralid is a potential ground water contaminant and PAN Bad Actor pesticide.[15]

DDT Implicated as a cause of egg-shell thinning and human cancer by Rachel Carson in Silent Spring and subsequent investigations. EPA banned DDT in 1973 but it remains in use as an insecticide in some countries. DDT affects the human nervous system and can cause liver damage.[16] DDT is also a developmental/reproductive toxin, suspected endocrine disruptor and PAN Bad Actor pesticide.[17]

Ethylene Dibromide (EDB) Nematicide, rodenticide and insecticide banned in the U.S. in 1983. EDB is a carcinogen, ground water contaminant, developmental/reproductive toxin, suspected endocrine disruptor and PAN Bad Actor pesticide. [18] It is also linked to organ damage.[19]

Haloxyfop The EPA refused to register this herbicide because of its extreme toxicity but it is still sold throughout the world  as Gallant and Verdict.[20] One of many “circle of poison” pesticides that can be manufactured in the U.S., applied abroad and returned as residue on imported foods.[21]

Nuarimol Fungicide causing cancer and birth defects in animals.[20] Not registered in the U.S. but sold in Africa, Colombia, Honduras and Europe.[21]

Pentachlorophenol (PCP) Highly toxic algicide, fungicide, herbicide, insecticide, molluscicide and wood preservative.Exposure to PCP causes cells to produce excessive heat, resulting in fever and organ damage. [22] PCP is a carcinogen, suspected endocrine disruptor and PAN Bad Actor pesticide. [23] Dow no longer produces PCP.

Picloram Herbicide chemically similar to clopyralid. Contains the contaminant hexachlorobenzene (HCB), a probable human carcinogen.[27] Was one of two active ingredients in Agent White.

Telone A soil fumigant under consideration as a replacement for methyl bromide, Telone is a carcinogen, ground water contaminant and PAN Bad Actor pesticide. [28] One of its active ingredients, 1,3-dichloropropene, produces cancer and birth defects in laboratory tests.[29]

Sulfuryl fluoride (Vikane) Fumigant used to kill termites and other pests. Restricted for extreme acute toxicity.[30] Sulfuryl fluoride is a PAN Bad Actor pesticide.[31]

Agricultural Biotechnology

In 1998, Dow announced that it would begin “pursuing long-term, value-added growth opportunities through biotechnology.”Today, Dow Chemical Company, led by its subsidiary Dow AgroSciences, is a major player in agricultural biotechnology. Its product lines include Mycogen Seeds, Bt corn and Atlas Roundup Ready soybeans. [32] Dow is also pursuing industrial and pharmaceutical biotechnology applications.

Genetically engineered crops pose serious risks to public health and the environment, increase reliance on pesticides, deepen agribusiness control over farmers and undermine food security and sovereignty. Most biotech seeds are licensed to farmers, not sold—making it illegal to replant, save, trade, share or breed them as farmers have done for millennia. Global food security requires access to land, small-scale, ecologically based farming systems and the crop diversity needed to respond to varied and changing environments and growing conditions. Genetically engineered crops, in contrast, are an extension of industrial agricultural practices that concentrate land ownership, rely on synthetic pesticides, fertilizers and other off-farm inputs, and dramatically reduce crop biodiversity.


Focus: Dibromochloropropane (DBCP), Infertility and Lies

DBCP is a carcinogen, ground water contaminant, reproductive toxin, suspected endocrine disruptor and PAN Bad Actor pesticide. [33] Dow and three other companies continued to produce and sell DBCP even after it was banned due to strong evidence linking the chemical to sterility. [34]

The companies knew at least since the 1960s that the product caused male sterility in rats, but concealed this information.[35] They also neglected to report findings of reduced sperm and atrophied testicles of rabbits and monkeys when they submitted information for registration and labeling.[36] One worker in a Dow manufacturing plant said, “After telling me that I shouldn't worry about anything out there because it can't hurt me, now to find out that I'm sterile from it, their answer was, don't worry about that because you can always adopt children.”[37] When DBCP was first marketed in developing countries, it had no labels warning that it was extremely toxic and no instructions on the use of safety equipment.

Widespread use of DBCP on banana plantations around the world has caused the permanent sterility of thousands of workers. One study found that approximately 20-25% of the male working population in banana plantations on Costa Rica’s Atlantic coast, where workers had mixed DBCP by hand, had been sterilized.[35] In a 1997 out-of-court settlement, Dow and other companies agreed to pay US$45 million to 26,000 banana workers in 11 countries.[35]


Focus: The Bhopal Tragedy

In 1984, a Union Carbide pesticide plant in Bhopal, India, released 40 tons of methyl isocyanate into neighboring communities.[36] Estimates of the death toll in the aftermath of the leak range from Union Carbide’s 1,408 to 8,000, as reported in New Scientist Magazine.[37] The Indian Council for Medical Research (ICMR) put the injury figure at more than 520,000.[38] According to ICMR, thousands have died from gas-related causes since the accident. The Bhopal disaster is often cited as the worst industrial accident in human history.

In 2001, Dow merged with Union Carbide, legally assuming all of Union Carbide’s assets and liabilities. Dow says “the Bhopal matter has been resolved for years… Union Carbide took responsibility for the tragedy…[and] agreed to pay $470 million into a trust as a settlement.” Groups of Bhopal survivors point out that victims of the accident have received little of the settlement, which amounts to only US$350 per victim. Local groups are demanding that the company release information to doctors still treating victims of the disaster, which the companies refuse to do, citing “trade secrets.”[41] They also want Dow to clean up the factory (which continues to contaminate local ground water with mutagenic and carcinogenic chemicals), the extradition to India of former Union Carbide CEO Warren Anderson (who continues to evade an outstanding warrant related to the disaster) and for Union Carbide to appear in the Bhopal court where it faces charges of culpable homicide and other crimes.[38]

Rather than accept responsibility for harms caused by its subsidiary, Dow has taken a very combative stance. For example, in 2003 it initiated a US$10,000 lawsuit against a group of Bhopal survivors that held a peaceful protest outside of the company’s Mumbai headquarters, claiming damages due to lost productivity.[42]

 

Focus: Dioxin

Two Dow herbicides (2,4-D and 2,4,5-T) contain dioxin. Dioxin exposure has been linked to cancer, developmental disabilities and organ damage. Dioxin bioaccumulates in the fat of living organisms, is highly carcinogenic and is a powerful endocrine disruptor. On multiple occasions, Dow has been directly implicated in the irresponsible release of dioxin into the environment.

Dow supplied the U.S. military with large amounts of various formulations of dioxin-laced 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T for use in defoliants like Agents Orange and White. Agent Orange was applied in Vietnam at up to 25 times the rate allowed in the U.S. long after its human toxicity was established.[43] Chemical producers and the U.S. government colluded to prevent information about Agent Orange’s health effects from reaching the public.[44] After the war, the Air Force released three studies to demonstrate that Agent Orange was not responsible for American veterans’ health problems.It was later disclosed that the studies had been altered to remove evidence that children of fliers exposed to Agent Orange were twice as likely to be born with birth defects and that the fliers themselves were sicker than controls by a ratio of 5 to 1.[44] To this day, veterans groups are pursuing compensation from the U.S. government for their exposure to dioxin. Millions of Vietnamese civilians were also exposed to Agent Orange during the war. A 2002 study by The Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine found elevated levels of TCDD (the most toxic chemical in the dioxin family) in 95% of blood samples taken from residents living in Bien Hoa City, more than 30 years after spraying was stopped.[45]

Dioxin contamination is also a problem for local communities. The Tittabawassee River, its floodplain and much of the area surrounding Dow’s Midland, Michigan, corporate headquarters is contaminated with elevated levels of dioxin. Dow and the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ) withheld information about this contamination from residents for two years, delayed requested dioxin studies and attempted to increase substantially the maximum contaminant level for dioxin.[46] In 2003, more than 230 families living in dioxin-contaminated Saginaw County initiated a lawsuit against Dow Chemical seeking compensation for depreciated property values and medical monitoring.[47] The latest soil testing (November 2007) in this region revealed dioxin levels of 1.6 million ppt, over 17,000 times the state's clean-up level of 90ppt. [47] 


A Wide Range of Impacts

Hazardous wastes As of December 2000, EPA has named Dow and Union Carbide potentially responsible parties for a combined 136 hazardous waste sites.[48] Seventeen of 36 Dow and Union Carbide manufacturing plants rank among the worst 20% in their class for toxic environmental releases. Twelve rank among the worst 10%.[49]

Asbestos Union Carbide has been held liable for exposing workers and consumers to unsafe levels of asbestos.In 2002, Dow estimated that its potential asbestos liabilities were worth 2.2 billion dollars.[50]

Groundwater contamination Residents of the Myrtle Grove Trailer Park are suing Dow for groundwater contamination caused by illegal rail car cleaning procedures at its Plaquemine, Louisiana, facility. Plant employees claim that for years they were instructed to clean railway cars used to transport vinyl chloride (a highly toxic, cancer-causing chemical) and other chemicals by filling them with water and dumping the resultant mix on the ground.[50]

Use of human subjects On at least two occasions, Dow tested the pesticide chlorpyrifos on human subjects: In 1971 on inmates at the Clinton Correctional Facility in New York[51] and in 1998 on students in Nebraska.[52] In 1965, Dow conducted dioxin tests on inmates at the Holmesburg Prison in Pennsylvania.[53]

Labor In April 2003, the AFL-CIO Metal Trades Department released a white paper on Dow’s 50-year history of union busting.[50] Between 1993 and 1995, Dow’s global restructuring strategy resulted in a 21% reduction of its workforce.[50] From 1952 to 1983, Union Carbide operated the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant and, according to recently uncovered memos, knowingly exposed its employees to extremely carcinogenic radioactive metals like neptunium and plutonium.[54]

Chemicals of mass destruction Union Carbide produced nuclear weapons components and enriched uranium for the U.S. government.[55] Dow produced large quantities of Agent Orange, Agent White and other defoliants, and napalm, used by the U.S. during the Vietnam War.In 1988, Dow sold pesticides to Iraq that could be used to create chemical weapons.[56]

False advertising An investigation by the office of the New York State attorney general found that Dow made false and misleading advertising claims about the safety of Dursban. In a 1994 settlement Dow agreed to stop calling their product safe, but violated its agreement. In 2003, the Attorney General sued Dow for violations of the agreement and the company was fined US$2 million.[57] Dow continues to make such safety claims in other countries, such as India.[58]


Undue Influence

To advance their interests, powerhouses like Dow invest heavily in political and social influence. Dow’s methods for influencing policy and public opinion include:

Trade organizations and think tanks Industry groups work in many areas to advance the interests of their members and supporters. Some of the trade and policy organizations in which Dow participates include:

Campaign contributions Dow Chemical, Dow Corning (a 50/50 joint venture between Dow Chemical and Corning) and Union Carbide political action committees (PACs) contributed a total of US$1,348,476 to federal candidates from 1994 to 2002 (73.4% to republicans)—nearly US$270,000 per election cycle.[59] Dow PAC’s also donated US$26,000 to George W. Bush’s Texas gubernatorial campaigns between 1993-1998.[60] Dow gave over US$1 million in soft money contributions to the Republican and Democratic parties in the 1998, 2000 and 2002 election cycles.[61] Dow contributed more than US$100,000 to the Bush/Cheney inauguration fund.[62]

Lobbying In addition to the large sums of money that Dow spends directly on lobbying, many of Dow’s trade organizations deploy teams of lobbyists. For example, the American Chemistry Council (formerly the Chemical Manufacturers Association) spent US$4.68 million lobbying in Washington in the first half of 1996 alone.[63]

Revolving door Industry benefits from the movement of personnel between industry and government. Many of Dow’s leaders are former high-level government officials. Some examples include:

  • Barbara Hackman Franklin, former U.S. Secretary of Commerce, is a Director of Dow Chemical.[64]
  • Harold T. Shapiro, former presidential appointee to the Council of Advisors on Science and Technology, was a Director of Dow Chemical.[65]
  • John C. Danforth, former U.S. Senator, sits on Dow’s Board of Directors.[66]
  • Clayton K. Yeutter, former head of USDA and former U.S. Trade Representative, is now a Director of Mycogen Corporation, which is majority owned by Dow AgroSciences.[67]
  • Kathleen M. Bader, member of the Homeland Security Advisory Panel, was Corporate Vice President at Dow.Before this, she was a director at the Halliburton Company. [68]

Buying democracy In 2002, Dow contributed nearly US$400,000 to the Alliance for Better Foods’ US$5 million advertising blitz to defeat Oregon’s Proposition 27, a ballot initiative to label genetically modified foods. [50]

Public relations (PR) Dow employs the world’s top PR firms to market its products and polish its abysmal environmental record. For example, in 1994, Dow worked with PR firm Ketchum to manage press coverage of an EPA report on dioxin by conducting a 30 city PR tour with sympathetic independent scientists.[69]

Corporate science Corporations influence science by doing in-house research, participating in university research and government assessments, maintaining financial ties to “independent” researchers, funding think tanks, and running educational programs. For example, in 1995 Dow loaned a staff scientist to the U.S. House Commerce Committee to assist with changes to environmental, health and safety protections.[70] Dow serves on the Endocrine Disruptor Screening and Testing Advisory Committee for EPA.[71] Dow gave US$100,000 in grants to members of the scientific advisory board reevaluating the toxicity of dioxin.[70]


Resources for Action

Many people around the world are taking action to hold Dow Chemical accountable for its impacts. The following resources are good starting points for more information about Dow and how you can help in these efforts.

International Campaign for Justice In Bhopal (http://www.bhopal.net)
Web site of the international coalition working for justice for the survivors of the Bhopal chemical disaster.

Students for Bhopal (http://www.studentsforbhopal.org)
Web site of the international network of students and youth advocating for justice in Bhopal.

Sambhavna Clinic/Bhopal Medical Appeal (http://www.bhopal.org/)
Web site of the Sambhavna Clinic, a community medical facility serving survivors and others in Bhopal.

Tittabawassee River Watch (http://www.trwnews.net/)
Web site of the Tittabawassee River Watch, covering ongoing efforts to make Dow clean up dioxin contamination in Midland, Michigan.

Dow Chemical Corporation (http://www.dow.com)
Dow’s Web site.

Union Carbide Corporate Profile (http://www.endgame.org/carbide.html)
Extensive profile of Union Carbide, including a list of major spills, a corporate history and executive compensation.

Scorecard (http://www.scorecard.org)
Environmental Defense’s toxic release information Web site. You can look up Dow’s toxic release information and locations of its U.S. facilities.

Hoovers online (http://www.hoovers.com)
Provides financial information about Dow and links to detailed reports and filings.

PAN Pesticides Database (http://www.pesticideinfo.org)
Pesticide Action Network North America’s pesticide database allows you to search for toxicity, regulatory and other information by chemical or product.



[1] The Dow Chemical Company: Fact Sheet, Hoover’s Online, <http://www.hoovers.com/dow-chemical/--ID__10471--/free-co-factsheet.xhtml> on 4 August 2010

[2] Dow website: <http://www.dow.com/about/aboutdow/joint/main.htm>

[3] Dow 2009 Annual Report.

[5] Lascari, Tony, "Dow Executive Compensation Up in 2009", Midland Daily News, 6 March 2010. <http://www.ourmidland.com/local_news/article_589dbdf1-7106-5bdd-8844-8e2d03add647.html>

[6] “They Rule” database, <http://www.theyrule.net>, based on 2004 data.

[7] United States Dept. of Veterans Affairs, Office of Public Health and Environmental Hazards website: <http://www.publichealth.va.gov/exposures/agentorange/basics.asp>

[8] Van Strum, Carol, “Back to the Future: EPA Reinvents the Wheel on Reproductive Effects of Dioxin,” Synthesis/Regeneration 7-8, Summer 1995, <http://www.greens.org/s-r/078/07-25.html> on 5 August 2010.

[9] Jones, Simon, “The Poisoning of New Zealand,” Investigate Magazine <http://www.investigatemagazine.com/poisoning_of_new_zealand%20OCT2000.htm> on 5 August 2010.

[10] PAN Pesticide Information Database: http://www.pesticideinfo.org/Summary_Chemical.jsp?Rec_Id=PC34514

[11] Beyond Pesticides toxics directory: http://www.beyondpesticides.org/infoservices/pesticidefactsheets/toxic/chlorpyrifos.htm on 5 August 2010.

[12] PAN Pesticide Information Database: http://www.pesticideinfo.org/Summary_Chemical.jsp?Rec_Id=PC33392

[13] Green, Emily, “Clopyralid by Dow AgroSciences Found in Composted Grass,” LA Times, 27 December 2001, <http://www.mindfully.org/Pesticide/Clopyralid-Composting-Dow.htm> on 5 August 2010.

[14]Steele, Karen Dorn, “EPA Accused of Bowing to Dow,” The Spokesman-Review, 26 September 2002 <http://www.grrn.org/dow/spokesmanreview_9-26-2002.html> on 5 August 2010.

[15] PAN Pesticide Information Database: http://www.pesticideinfo.org/Summary_Chemical.jsp?Rec_Id=PC36017

[16]“ToxFAQs for DDT, DDE, and DDD,” ATSDR, September 2002, <http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/tfacts35.html> on 5 August 2010.

[17] PAN Pesticide Information Database: http://www.pesticideinfo.org/Summary_Chemical.jsp?Rec_Id=PC33482

[18] PAN Pesticide Information Database: http://www.pesticideinfo.org/Summary_Chemical.jsp?Rec_Id=PC33216

[19] "Ethylene Dibromide Chemical Fact Sheet,” The Pesticide Management Education Program, September 1993: <http://pmep.cce.cornell.edu/profiles/extoxnet/dienochlor-glyphosate/ethylene-dibromide-ext.html> on 5 August 2010.

[20] Brockley, Ross, “Corporate Profile Dow: the Menace from Midland,” <http://multinationalmonitor.org/hyper/issues/1991/07/mm0791_10.html> on 5 August 2010.

[21] Marquardt, Sandra, Glassman, Laura and Sheldon, Elizabeth, “Never Registered Pesticides: Rejected Toxics Join the ‘Circle of Poison,’” Greenpeace USA Pesticide Campaign, February 1992, <http://archive.greenpeace.org/gopher/campaigns/toxics/1992/neverreg.txt> on 5 August 2010.

[22] Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry website: http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxfaqs/tf.asp?id=401&tid=70

[23] PAN Pesticide Information Database: http://www.pesticideinfo.org/Summary_Chemical.jsp?Rec_Id=PC34087

[27] “Picloram; Time-Limited Pesticide Tolerances,” Federal Register Vol. 64 No. 2, 5 January 1999, <http://www.epa.gov/fedrgstr/EPA-TRI/1999/January/Day-05/tri34830.htm> on 5 August 2010.

[28] PAN Pesticide Information Database: http://www.pesticideinfo.org/Summary_Chemical.jsp?Rec_Id=PC33610

[29] “1,3-Dichloropropene (Telone II) Chemical Fact Sheet,” The Pesticide Management Education Program, September 1986, <http://pmep.cce.cornell.edu/profiles/fumigant/dichloropropene/dichlor_prf_0986.html> on 5 August 2010.

[30] “Pesticide Information Profile: Sulfuryl Fluoride,” Extension Toxicology Network, September 1993, <http://pmep.cce.cornell.edu/profiles/extoxnet/pyrethrins-ziram/sulfuryl-fluoride-ext.html>

[31] PAN Pesticide Information Database: http://www.pesticideinfo.org/Summary_Chemical.jsp?Rec_Id=PC34505

[32] Dow website: http://www.dow.com/products/food_and_related/agriculture/plant_genetics_biotechnology/landing.page?&industry=1000414&application=1120905

[33] PAN Pesticide Information Database: http://www.pesticideinfo.org/Summary_Chemical.jsp?Rec_Id=PC33459

[34] Arax, Mark, "Banned DBCP Still Haunts San Joaquin Valley Water", Los Angeles Times, June 12 1995. <http://articles.latimes.com/1995-06-12/news/mn-12343_1_san-joaquin-valley-water/3>

[35] “DBCP Out-of-Court Settlement,” Global Pesticide Campaigner, March 1998. Print.

[36] Thrupp, L. “Direct Damage: DBCP Poisoning in Costa Rica,” Dirty Dozen Campaigner, May 1989. Print.

[37] Transcript of “Trade Secrets: A Moyers Rerport,” Public Broadcasting Service, <http://www.pbs.org/tradesecrets/transcript.html> on 5 August 2010.

[38] “The Union Carbide Disaster,” <http://www.bhopal.net/oldsite/background.html> on 5 August 2010.

[39]  “Background,” International Campaign for Justice in Bhopal, <http://www.bhopal.net/oldsite/backdam.html> on 15 February 2004.

[40] Javier Moro & Dominique Lapierre, Five Past Midnight in Bhopal, 2001, p 366.

[41] Amy Waldman, “Bhopal Seethes, Pained and Poor 18 Years Later,” New York Times, 21 September 2002. Print.

[42] “The Lawrence Summers Memorial Award,” Multinational Monitor, March 2003 Vol. 24 No. 3, <http://www.multinationalmonitor.org/mm2003/03march/march03award.html> on 9 August 2010.

[43] “Agent Orange Information Package,” Veterans of the Vietnam War, Inc., <http://www.vvnw.org/educational_material/agent_orange.htm> on 9 August 2010.

[44] “The Story of Agent Orange,” Us Veteran Dispatch Staff Report, November 1990, <http://cybersarges.tripod.com/aostory.html> on 9 August 2010.

[45] Tran, Tini, “Study: Agent Orange Still in Vietnam,” AP, 9 August 2010. Print.

[46] Button, Gregory, “MDEQ’s Harding: Acting in the Best Interest of the Public… or Covering Up for Dow Chemical Company?,” From the Groud Up, March 2002, <http://www.ecocenter.org/newsletter/newsletters/200203/ftgumarch2002.pdf> on 9 August 2010.

[47] “How Much Dioxin Has Been Found?” <http://www.trwnews.org/> on 9 August 2010.

[48] KLD Research & Analytics, Inc., “Dow Corporate Profile” 2002.

[49] See <http://www.scorecard.org>.

[50] "Dirty Dow" International Campaign for Justice in Bhopal, <http://old.studentsforbhopal.org/DirtyDow.htm#Asbestos>

[51] “Dow Poison Vinyl Chloride in Plaquemine,” WBRZ News, August 2002, <http://www.mindfully.org/Plastic/Polyvinylchloride/Dow-Vinyl-Chloride-Plaquemine14aug02.htm> on 9 August 2010.

[52] Morris, Jim, “The Stuff in the Backyard Shed,” US News and World Report, 8 November 1999, <http://www.getipm.com/newsletter/99-11.htm> on 9 August 2010.

[53] Rawe, Julia, “Poisoning for Dollars,” Time Magazine, <http://www.time.com/time/covers/1101020422/poisons.html> on 9 August 2010.

[54] Warrick, Joby, “Radiation Risks Long Concealed Paducah Plant Memos Show Fear of Public Outcry,” Washington Post, 21 September 1999. 

[55] Summa, John, “Corporate Proiles: Union Carbide,” Multinational Monitor Vol. 9 No. 10, October 1988, <http://multinationalmonitor.org/hyper/issues/1988/10/mm1088_10.html> on 9 August 2010.

[56] Borger, Julian, “Rumsfeld ‘Offered Help to Saddam,’” The Guardian, 31 December 2002, <http://www.guardian.co.uk/Iraq/Story/0,2763,866942,00.html> on 9 August 2010.

[57] Office of New York State Attorney General press release, “Dow Subsidiary to Pay $2 Million for Making False Safety Claims in Pesticide Ads,” 15 December 2003. <http://dursban-in-your-water.com/images/NY%20Attorneys%20PR%20dec15a_03.pdf>

[58] “The Dow Chemical Company a.k.a. Dioxin King,” <http://www.bhopal.net/oldsite/mergerinfo2.html> on 9 August 2010.

[59] Information acquired from online searchable database of FEC PAC filings at <http://www.politicalmoneyline.com> on 8 August 2003.

[60] Texas Public Employees for Environmental Responsibility website, “Superfund a Super Deal for Texas Polluters, Part III: Money Talks,” <http://www.txpeer.org/Bush/superfund3.html> on 9 August 2010.

[61] Data acquired by soft money donor search for Dow at http://www.opensecrets.org on 11 August 2003.

[62] “The Corporate Conservative Administration Takes Shape,” Multinational Monitor, 2001 Vol. 22 no 1&2, <http://www.multinationalmonitor.org/mm2001/01jan-feb/editorial.html> on 9 August 2010.

[63] “Infact’s Hall of Shame Campaign,” <http://www.infact.org> on 8 August 2003.

[64] Dow biography of Barbara Hackman Franklin, <http://www.dow.com/about/aboutdow/lead/franklin.htm> on 9 August 2010.

[65] Princeton University profile of Harold T. Shapiro, <http://www.princeton.edu/pr/hts/bio.html> on 9 August 2010.

[66] "Senator John C. Danforth Joins Salomon Smith Barney's International Advisory Board as Vice Chairman." BusinessWire, June 21 2001 on 9 August 2010. <http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Senator+John+C.+Danforth+Joins+Salomon+Smith+Barney%27s+International...-a075704254>

[67] “The Old Revolving Door,” The Edmonds Institute, <http://www.edmonds-institute.org/olddoor.html> on 9 August 2010.

[68] Forbes profile of Kathleen M. Bader, <http://people.forbes.com/profile/kathleen-m-bader/78151> on 9 August 2010.

[69] “Ketchum (the UN’s PR Firm) Tackles Corporate Responsibility,” Center for Media & Democracy, PR Watch, Third Quarter 2002, Volume 9, No. 3. <http://www.prwatch.org/prwissues/2002Q3/ketchum.html>

[70] “Corporate Imbalance Sheet,”International Campaign for Justice in Bhopal, <http://bhopal.net/oldsite/oldwebsite/dowimbalance.html> on 9 August 2010.

[71] EPA Website: http://www.epa.gov/endo/pubs/edsparchive/keystone.htm